Realizing Community Social Resilience through the Management of Village Owned Enterprises (Bumdes) in Indonesian Villages

on August 28 at 03:59 AM
The village as the smallest entity of the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia plays a very large role for national development. Therefore, greater attention needs to be paid by the authorities. Social problems are classic problems for rural communities such as poverty, ignorance, unemployment, community diseases and many other problems experienced by rural communities. The location which is far from the city and limited access seems to be justification that the village community deserves to get these problems. In fact, as we all know, building a village is a major milestone in national development. This is because the village has considerable potential if it is utilized optimally, both its natural resources, humans and the authority possessed by the village in managing its own household as mandated by law.
Community Social
The development of rural communities in order to improve welfare is a goal that cannot be
separated from national development goals. The issue of improving the welfare of rural communities is a very important issue so it is contained in Law Number 32 of 2004 concerning Regional Autonomy and Government Regulation Number 72 of 2005 concerning Villages which provides opportunities for rural communities to regulate and manage their own households, by paying attention and considering various aspects such as the principles of democracy, community participation, equity, justice, and paying attention to the potential and diversity of the community.
The government's attention to community welfare is further strengthened by the issuance of Law Number 6 of 2014 concerning villages which explains the importance of active community involvement, participation and empowerment of the community in improving community welfare. In addition, the attention of the government by providing funds from the APBN in the form of Village Funds DD) and Village Fund Allocations (ADD) allows villages to build and change their destiny with the trust given by the government, both central and regional governments. However, the problem is whether the assistance and authority provided has provided benefits to the community and is able to solve problems for the village community.
Today's phenomenon is that the condition of rural communities in general has not been able to take advantage of existing institutions,
although the government has provided a legal umbrella in the form of laws, many village governments have not been able to use them optimally. Almost all of the villages in Bintan Regency already have BUMdes. Having BUMDes in this case is meant to have been established and has a management structure but the benefits have not yet been felt. The existence of BUMDes is only a formality because every village is required to own it and have initial capital from village funds. However, the reality is that BUMDes have not been able to provide benefits to rural communities.
Many factors are the cause of this, such as the understanding and paradigm of the community that has not been able to translate that the existence of BUMDes is to improve the welfare of the community. In addition, the weakness of human resources who can manage BUMDes is also an important problem and the government's lack of attention in providing guidance to village communities, especially managing BUMDes. In his research, Imam Sahroni Darmawan stated that the obstacles in managing BUMDes in several areas include; the types of businesses that are run are still limited, limited human resources that manage BUMDes and low community participation due to their low knowledge.
Today's phenomenon, the condition of rural communities in general, has not been able to take advantage of existing institutions. Success in managing BUMDes carried out in the Kedungdung Village, Sampang Regency, Indonesia should have implications for the social resilience of rural communities such as reducing unemployment, reducing poverty, creating enthusiasm and work ethic for the community and reduce community disease in the village of Kedungdung. This is in line with research findings by (Sri and Dewi 2014) that the existence of BUMDes in Aik Batu Buding Village has had a very good impact on the community and village government. The existence of BUMDes is able to provide welfare to the community's economy, education and public health, besides that community creativity can also be channeled through BUMDES to continue to improve the development of Aik Batu Buding Village.
The purpose of this research is to see whether the existence of BUMDes as an institution engaged in the economy has been utilized by the village government well to improve community welfare, to see whether the success of BUMDes management has a positive impact on the people of Kedungdung village, such as increasing social resilience. ) and provide recommendations to the authorities in implementing BUMDes to take lessons from the research results obtained. Based on the above background, the author raises the title of this paper: Realizing Community Social Resilience Through Village Owned Enterprise Management (BUMDes) Study of Kedungdung Village, Teluk Sebong District, Bintan Regency.

A. Social Resilience Resilience comes from the origin of the word "resistance"; endure suffering, steadfast, strong, self-control, never give up. Endurance means talking about strength, determination, or fortitude. So National Resilience is a matter of being strong, steadfast, in the context of awareness, while the meaning of national is the population who lives in an area and is sovereign. Thus the term national resilience is a matter of determination to fight for national interests. The definition of National Resilience in English which is close to its original meaning is national resilience which contains a dynamic meaning, compared to the notion of resistance and endurance. National resilience is a dynamic condition of a nation, containing tenacity and resilience containing the ability to develop national strength, in facing and overcoming all challenges, threats, obstacles, and disturbances both coming from outside and inside that directly and indirectly endanger integrity, identity. , the survival of the nation and state and the struggle to pursue its National Goals. Circumstances or conditions are always evolving and changing,
therefore national resilience must be developed and fostered to be adequate in accordance with the times. If we examine national resilience broadly we will get three "faces" of National Resilience, although there are similarities but there are differences from each other: 1. National Resilience as a dynamic condition refers to the "real real" situation that exists in society, can be observed with the five senses. man. As a dynamic condition, what matters is ATHG on the one hand and the persistence, toughness, to develop national strength in overcoming threats. 2. National security as a conception of state regulation and administration requires structuring the relationship between welfare (IPOLEKSOSBUD) and security (Hankam) aspects. In this regulatory conception, the characteristics and characteristics of national resilience, as well as the objectives of national resilience are formulated. 3. National Resilience as a method of thinking, this means a distinctive approach that distinguishes it from other thinking methods. In science known as inductive and deductive methods, this is also in national security, with an addition that all gatra are seen as a unified whole.
To realize national resilience, what is not important to do as a support for national security is social security. As the basis of national resilience, social security provides a very high carrying capacity for the realization of national resilience. Therefore, attention to social security for the government and the authorities must be a priority. To fully understand we must understand what social resilience is. The National Resilience Institute defines socio-cultural resilience as "The tenacity and resilience of the nation in realizing national cultural values in the life of society, nation and state in order to strengthen national identity and integrity to ensure the continuity of national development and the survival of the nation and state based on Pancasila and the Law. the 1945 Constitution” (Lemhanas, 1993:39). The parameters of Socio-Cultural Resilience according to Sukaya (2002: 71-72) consist of principles which include the principles of welfare and security, the principles of comprehensive integral/integrated comprehensiveness, the principles of inward and outward insight and the principle of kinship. Social Resilience is a dynamic condition of a nation consisting of toughness and tenacity and the ability to develop national strength in the face of all kinds and forms of threats, challenges, obstacles and with disturbances both coming from within and outside, directly or indirectly. which threatens and endangers the integrity, identity, survival of the nation and state and the struggle to realize the goals of the national struggle. Social resilience also means the ability of individuals or social groups to compensate for the damage that has occurred or to restore functions that have been lost, namely the ability to be flexible when responding to danger, Tanja, 2009. The ability of individuals or groups to respond to something that is considered capable of damaging and endangering the community so that the community returns to stability. Individuals or groups that are able to respond to all damage are individuals or groups that are sensitive and sensitive to any disturbances. So that the disturbance that comes does not reach the highest level of damage or even the damage is not able to touch the individual or community at all. There are two views on social resilience. The first view states that social security is an integral part of national security, in addition to economic, political, cultural and defense-security resilience. So, social security as well as economic, political, cultural, and military resilience are elements that form national resilience. Another view states that social resilience is the ability of the community (local/grassroots community) in predicting, anticipating, and overcoming social changes that occur, so that people can still coexist in the life of society, nation and state. The two views are not dichotomous views, but can be combined into a more comprehensive understanding. The social resilience of a community is often associated with its ability to cope with risks due to the social, economic, and political changes that surround it. Social resilience also describes the ability to survive at the local system level from the currents of globalization and decentralization. Social resilience shows the community's ability to avoid and or manage conflict, find various solutions, along with the development of the community itself. Social resilience includes the internal ability to build consensus and manage external resources and factors that can be a source of threats, but can be turned into opportunities. So, social resilience is a product of dynamic interactions between exogenous and endogenous factors, so that this ability shows the existence of aspects of community homeostatic and dynamic balance (community homeostatic and dynamic). to its original condition or even better. Social resilience also contains the ability to manage the management of resources, differences, interests, and conflicts. So, social resilience implies the ability to turn threats and challenges into opportunities and opportunities. Based on this description, social resilience is not a finish product, but as a process and dynamics of society. This capability is in line with and is part of national security. Capabilities in community social resilience will increase national awareness, because basically national awareness is a sense of care and a sense of responsibility and concern for a citizen towards the continuity of life in society, nation and state from a potential threat whose element of national vigilance is also contained in social resilience. Social resilience in a society includes four dimensions that are closely related to national awareness and national resilience as follows: Able to protect individuals, families, groups and communities from influencing social changes. In the fast-growing current of globalization, where there are no more national boundaries, in the midst of a global flow of information and communication, the ability to filter out influences that are not in accordance with the norms and values of the life of the nation and state is needed, such as the values of freedom, equality and liberal ideology, pluralism which is applied without being based on the nation's cultural customs. In the era of globalization there is also a situation in society which is an individualistic, materialistic, hedonistic attitude, resulting in decreased attention and concern for the existence of the nation state, so that citizens no longer care about their nation. If it is not able to protect individuals, families, groups and communities from these social changes, there will be moral degradation, fragile nationalism, loss of social solidarity, the strong oppressing the weak, widespread corruption, loss of justice, disruption of national development. Another factor that is no less important that causes the weakening of social resilience is the economic factor. Weak economic conditions will lead to various problems such as poverty, unemployment, crime, societal ills and other deviant social behavior. Therefore, the economic problems that hit the community, especially rural communities, must be found a solution that is a solution and sustainable (sustainable).

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